大阪大学経済学研究会 

GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics

IPP研究会共催

概要

大阪大学大学院経済学研究科では、定例研究会を第1、第4木曜日を中心に開催しております。2009年より、経済学研究科と国際公共政策研究科の合同セミナーとして開催しております。通称『待兼山セミナー』です。


■OVERVIEW

The Graduate School of Economics(GSE) organizes faculty seminars on the first and fourth Thursdays of each month.

Since 2009, the seminars have been held jointly with OSIPP as GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics.


NEW2022年度 第12回 大阪大学経済学研究会 のご案内

日時:2023年2月2日()1330〜1500 

会場:豊中キャンパス 国際公共政策研究科棟 6階会議室

講師: 伊藤 高弘氏(神戸大学)

議論:The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior in the Market Society: Evidence from Geographically Isolated Communities

アブストラクト:Since the rise of the market economy in the modern era, scholars and social activists have repeatedly expressed concerns about the adverse consequences of integration into the market on human nature, especially prosociality. Nevertheless, our empirical understanding of the link between market institutions and human prosociality is limited. This present study therefore aims to quantify how market integration is associated with altruistic behavior exploiting the case of communities in hilly and mountainous areas of Nepal, where the degree of market integration is geographically determined and people have identical cultural backgrounds. The data collected from 44 villages show that the more market-integrated a village is, the less altruistically people act in experimental games. The results are consistent across various robustness checks, implying that integration into the market suppresses people’s altruistic behavior.

Date and time : February, 2, 2023 (Thursday) 13:30~15:00

Place : Toyonaka Campus OSIPP6階 会議室

Presenter : Takahiro Ito 氏 (Boston College)

Title: The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior in the Market Society: Evidence from Geographically Isolated Communities

Abstract: Since the rise of the market economy in the modern era, scholars and social activists have repeatedly expressed concerns about the adverse consequences of integration into the market on human nature, especially prosociality. Nevertheless, our empirical understanding of the link between market institutions and human prosociality is limited. This present study therefore aims to quantify how market integration is associated with altruistic behavior exploiting the case of communities in hilly and mountainous areas of Nepal, where the degree of market integration is geographically determined and people have identical cultural backgrounds. The data collected from 44 villages show that the more market-integrated a village is, the less altruistically people act in experimental games. The results are consistent across various robustness checks, implying that integration into the market suppresses people’s altruistic behavior.

■今後のスケジュール

【第13回】

日時:202333日()1510〜1640 

会場:豊中キャンパス 法経研究棟7階 会議室

講師:Guido Friebel氏(フランクフルト大学)

議論:TBA

The Upcoming Schedule

Date and time : March, 3, 2023 (Friday) 15:10~16:40

Place : Toyonaka Campus 法経研究棟7階 Conference Room

Presenter : Guido Friebel

Title : TBA

■過去のセミナー

11

日時:2022年12月23日(金)15:10〜16:40 

会場:豊中キャンパス 法経研究棟7階 会議室

講師:森口 千晶 氏(一橋大学)

議論:Meritocracy and Its Discontents: Long-run Effects of Repeated School Admission Reforms (joint with Mari Tanaka and Yusuke Narita)

アブストラクト:We study the impacts of changing admissions systems in higher education. Our research design takes advantage of the world's first known implementation of nationally centralized meritocratic admissions and its subsequent reversals in the early twentieth century. We find a sharp tradeoff between meritocracy and equal regional access to higher education and career advancement. Specifically, in the short run, the meritocratic centralization led students to make more inter-regional and risk-taking applications. As high-achieving students were located disproportionately in urban areas, increased regional mobility caused urban applicants to crowd out rural applicants from elite higher education. Most importantly, the impacts were persistent. Four decades later, compared to the decentralized admissions, the meritocratic centralization increases the number of urban-born career elites (e.g., top income earners) relative to rural-born elites. For the whole country, the meritocratic centralization also increased the number of top-ranking bureaucrats relative to the decentralized system, indicating a national productive efficiency gain.

10

日時:2022年12月22日(木)16:50〜18:20 

会場:豊中キャンパス 法経講義棟 4番講義室

講師:小西 秀男 氏(Boston College)

議論:Team Production in Competitive Market

アブストラクト:Kaneko and Wooders (1986) showed that in an atomless NTU game

with finite types of players has a core allocation when coalitions allow finite population under very general conditions. In this note, using a fixed

point theorem, we provide a direct proof of the above result when the sizes of coalitions are not only finite but also bounded above. This condition

allows for a simple presentation of the model and a simple proof using Kakutani's fixed point theorem. Applications of the result to matching

problems, coalition formation problems with wide-spread externalities, and the nonemptiness of the core of NTU games by Scarf (1971) are discussed.

報告論文

9

日時:2022年12月1日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師:近藤 絢子 氏(東京大学)

議論:Access to Formal Childcare for Toddlers and Parental Employment and Earnings

アブストラクト:This study examines the effect of availability of accredited childcare centers, the most popular category of publicly-licensed childcare centers in Japan, on mothers’ employment and earnings. We focus on mothers with children less than two years old, most of whom are returning from parental leave to full-time work under excess demand for center-based childcare. We construct an instrument from the first-round assignment process of April enrollment and find that the enrollment to an accredited childcare center increases mothers’ employment rate and mothers’ annual salary significantly.

共著者:深井 太陽 氏

報告言語:日本語

8

日時:2022年10月27日(木)10:00〜

場所:豊中キャンパス 国際公共政策研究科棟 6階会議室 

講師:Philip Barrett氏、Jorge A. Alvarez 氏(International Monetary Fund)

議論:"IMF’s World Economic Outlook and Wage-price Spiral Risks"

Description: Inflation has reached its highest levels in 40 years in some economies. Although wage growth tended to stay below inflation so far, observers have warned that wage-price spirals—feedback loops of ever rising wage growth and inflation—could emerge. This presentation will cover two chapters from the most recent World Economic Outlook report from the International Monetary Fund. The first is a conjunctural chapter, providing a broad overview of the global economic situation. The second is an analytical chapter on wage dynamics post-COVID-19 and wage-price spiral risks. Using a mix of empirical and model-based analyses, this examines past and recent wage dynamics. Historical episodes similar to today did not tend to show subsequent wage-price spirals. With underlying inflation shocks originating outside the labor market and aggressive monetary tightening, the chapter considers risks of a sustained acceleration of wages and prices to be limited.

7

日時:2022年10月6日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師:遠山 祐太 氏(早稲田大学)

議論:"Welfare Effects of Nonlinear Electricity Pricing with Misperception: A Case of Free Electricity Policy" (joint with Ngawang Dendup)"

アブストラクト:This paper evaluates the welfare effects of nonlinear electricity pricing when consumers may have a misperception about the pricing schedule. We focus on a unique electricity subsidy program in Bhutan where electricity is provided for free up to 100 kWh per month. Using administrative billing data from the universe of retail customers, we find evidence of distinctive bunching of consumption at 100 kWh after the introduction of the program. To interpret this observation and derive welfare implications of the policy, we construct and estimate a model of electricity demand for consumers with different misperceptions. Estimation results suggest that much of consumers behave with some forms of misperceptions. We then conduct a simulation analysis to evaluate the free electricity policy. The current subsidy scheme benefits households with higher electricity consumption. The welfare loss due to the misperception is about 1%-5% of monthly electricity expenditure. We also investigate the optimal tariff schedule and its welfare and distributional implications.

第6回

日時:2022年9月20日(火)9:00~11:50 16:00~18:50 

講師:Shunsuke Tsuda (Brown University) Takeaki Sunada (University of Rochester) Tatsuya Abe (Waseda University)

Yoko Okuyama (Uppsala University) Kohei Kawaguchi (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) Takahiro Toriyabe (University College London)

テーマ:GSE-OSIPP-ISER Joint Conference in Economics 2022

申込みサイト:https://www.iser.osaka-u.ac.jp/collabo/event_20220920.html



第5回

日時:2022年7月7日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師:中野 優子氏(筑波大学)

議論:"Mechanization, Intensification, and Extensification of Agriculture: Evidence from Rice Farming in Tanzania"

アブストラクト:Agricultural machinery use is increasingly becoming common in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, their potential benefits to smallholder farmers remain unclear. This study aims to examine the impact of large- and small-scale agricultural mechanization on the expansion of the cultivated area (extensification), technology adoption and paddy yield (intensification), and labor use by using three-year panel data collected from rice farmers in Tanzania. In order to account for the endogeneity problem, we apply a multinomial endogenous treatment effect model with Mundlak-Chamberlain devices. We find that large four-wheeled tractor use contributes to the area expansion without affecting land productivity. On the other hand, small two-wheeled power tiller use contributes to the increase in the adoption of labor-intensive technologies as well as paddy yield. We also observe that family labor use declines significantly for machinery users while mixed evidence is observed for hired labor use. This study would contribute to the recent policy debates that aim to promote small-scale mechanization among farmers in SSA.

第4回

日時:2022年6月30日(木)13:30〜15:00 

場所:豊中キャンパス 法経 研究棟 7階大会議室

講師:井深 陽子氏(慶応義塾大学)

議論:"The impact of reduced mobility on suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic"

アブストラクト:Previous studies report that suicide among young females increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To understand the reason behind, this study elaborates the impact of reduced mobility induced by social distancing polices. To address the endogeneity of mobility, we employ a difference-in-differences instrumental variable approach, leveraging changes in mobility across localities under social distancing policies. We found increased suicide among females under 20 years old as mobility declined. The results are robust to alternative model specifications and different mobility indices. Our results suggest that the cost of social distancing policies disproportionately fall in young females, and highlight the importance of necessary support beyond financial assistance to mitigate the social impact of staying at home orders.

第3回

日時 :2022年6月23日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師 :Xiaxin Wang氏 (Fudan University)

論題:“Understanding Misreporting: Responses to a Housing Transaction Tax Notch in China” (with Ziying Fan, Hang Zhang)


アブストラクト:Using proprietary data from a large Chinese real estate brokerage company that records both true and reported prices of its housing transactions, we study the misreporting behavior under a housing transaction tax notch. Besides showing compelling evidence of underreporting, we provide novel evidence on the empirical relationship between the reported tax base and the true tax base under a tax notch. This relationship includes not only the expected bunching for those whose true sales price is modestly above the notch, but also a largely constant amount of price underreporting for those with a true sales price further above the notch. This pattern is consistent with a simple model that emphasizes the tradeoff between tax-saving and misreporting costs. While the model is used to reconcile the cross-sectional misreporting patterns, it generates a surprising prediction that underreporting should fall when the tax rate goes up. Intuitively, the government would be expected to be more aggressive in pursuing and penalizing any given level of underreporting when more tax revenue is at stake. By exploiting a tax reform that reduced the tax rate above the tax notch, we do find greater underreporting when the tax rate is lower.

言語:英語


第2回

日時 :2022年6月9日(木)13:30〜15:00   

講師 :沖本 竜義氏(慶應義塾大学)

論題:「ESG投資ならびに企業のESG評価と市場評価」

アブストラクト: 近年、ESG投資は大幅に拡大し、企業のESG活動やその評価が重要視されるようになってきている。それを受けて、ESG投資や企業のESG評価が市場でどのように評価されているのかを明らかにすることが重要となっている。本報告では、この課題に対する、最近の研究を2本紹介する。具体的には、1つ目の研究では、ESG投資のパフォーマンスに着目し、日本株女性活躍指数(WIN)やESGセレクト・リーダーズ指数(SLI)のパフォーマンスが市場より良くなる状況があるのかどうか、あるのであれば、どのような状況なのかについて検証した結果を紹介する。2つ目の研究では、企業のESG評価と信用スプレッドの関係に焦点を当て、企業の高いESG評価が、企業の信用スプレッドを低下させるかどうかについて検証した結果を紹介する。

言語:日本語

形式:オンライン(ズーム)

報告論文

第1回

日時:2022年5月26日(木)13:30〜15:00 (日本時間)

講師:田中 万理氏(一橋大学)議題:”Union Leaders: Experimental Evidence from Myanmar”

形式:オンライン (Zoom)

アブストラクト:

Economic theory suggests that leaders may play a key roles in enabling social movements

to overcome collective action problems through a variety of distinct mechanisms.

Empirical tests of these theories outside the lab are scarce due to both measurement

and identification challenges.We conduct multiple field experiments to test theories of

leadership in the context of Myanmar’s burgeoning labor union movement.

We collaborate with a confederation of labor unions as it mobilizes garment workers

in the run-up to a national minimum wage negotiation. We present three sets of results.

First, we document that union leaders differ from union members and non-members along

several traits that economists identify as relevant for political selection and that psychologists

have associated with ability to influence collective outcomes, respectively.

Second, we randomly embed leaders in group discussionson workers’ preferred and expected

minimum wage levels. A leader’s presence in the group improves group engagement and

increases workers’ consensus around the unions’ preferred minimum wage levels.

Third, we conduct a mobilization experiment in which workers are invited to participate

in an unannounced activity that features strategic complementarity in turnout.

Leaders influence participation through both coordination and social pressure mechanisms

rather than by simply motivating workers.

連絡先

大阪府豊中市待兼山町1-7

大阪大学大学院経済学研究科 大阪大学経済学研究会事務局

(合同研究室)

TEL:06-6850-5273 FAX:06-6850-5274

Eメール: goken@econ.osaka-u.ac.jp

(ECON、OSIPP、ISER、および大阪大学周辺の他のワークショップ。)