GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics
The Graduate School of Economics(GSE) organizes faculty seminars on the first and fourth Thursdays of each month.
Since 2009, the seminars have been held jointly with OSIPP as GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics.
NEW■2022年度 第12回 大阪大学経済学研究会 のご案内
会場：豊中キャンパス 国際公共政策研究科棟 6階会議室
講師： 伊藤 高弘氏（神戸大学）
議論：The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior in the Market Society: Evidence from Geographically Isolated Communities
アブストラクト：Since the rise of the market economy in the modern era, scholars and social activists have repeatedly expressed concerns about the adverse consequences of integration into the market on human nature, especially prosociality. Nevertheless, our empirical understanding of the link between market institutions and human prosociality is limited. This present study therefore aims to quantify how market integration is associated with altruistic behavior exploiting the case of communities in hilly and mountainous areas of Nepal, where the degree of market integration is geographically determined and people have identical cultural backgrounds. The data collected from 44 villages show that the more market-integrated a village is, the less altruistically people act in experimental games. The results are consistent across various robustness checks, implying that integration into the market suppresses people’s altruistic behavior.
Date and time : February, 2, 2023 (Thursday) 13:30～15:00
Place : Toyonaka Campus OSIPP棟６階 会議室
Presenter : Takahiro Ito 氏 （Boston College）
Title: The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior in the Market Society: Evidence from Geographically Isolated Communities
Abstract: Since the rise of the market economy in the modern era, scholars and social activists have repeatedly expressed concerns about the adverse consequences of integration into the market on human nature, especially prosociality. Nevertheless, our empirical understanding of the link between market institutions and human prosociality is limited. This present study therefore aims to quantify how market integration is associated with altruistic behavior exploiting the case of communities in hilly and mountainous areas of Nepal, where the degree of market integration is geographically determined and people have identical cultural backgrounds. The data collected from 44 villages show that the more market-integrated a village is, the less altruistically people act in experimental games. The results are consistent across various robustness checks, implying that integration into the market suppresses people’s altruistic behavior.
会場：豊中キャンパス 法経研究棟7階 会議室
■The Upcoming Schedule
Date and time : March, 3, 2023 (Friday) 15:10～16:40
Place : Toyonaka Campus 法経研究棟7階 Conference Room
Presenter : Guido Friebel 氏
Title : TBA
会場：豊中キャンパス 法経研究棟7階 会議室
講師：森口 千晶 氏（一橋大学）
議論：Meritocracy and Its Discontents: Long-run Effects of Repeated School Admission Reforms (joint with Mari Tanaka and Yusuke Narita)
アブストラクト：We study the impacts of changing admissions systems in higher education. Our research design takes advantage of the world's first known implementation of nationally centralized meritocratic admissions and its subsequent reversals in the early twentieth century. We find a sharp tradeoff between meritocracy and equal regional access to higher education and career advancement. Specifically, in the short run, the meritocratic centralization led students to make more inter-regional and risk-taking applications. As high-achieving students were located disproportionately in urban areas, increased regional mobility caused urban applicants to crowd out rural applicants from elite higher education. Most importantly, the impacts were persistent. Four decades later, compared to the decentralized admissions, the meritocratic centralization increases the number of urban-born career elites (e.g., top income earners) relative to rural-born elites. For the whole country, the meritocratic centralization also increased the number of top-ranking bureaucrats relative to the decentralized system, indicating a national productive efficiency gain.
会場：豊中キャンパス 法経講義棟 4番講義室
講師：小西 秀男 氏（Boston College）
議論：Team Production in Competitive Market
アブストラクト：Kaneko and Wooders (1986) showed that in an atomless NTU game
with finite types of players has a core allocation when coalitions allow finite population under very general conditions. In this note, using a fixed
point theorem, we provide a direct proof of the above result when the sizes of coalitions are not only finite but also bounded above. This condition
allows for a simple presentation of the model and a simple proof using Kakutani's fixed point theorem. Applications of the result to matching
problems, coalition formation problems with wide-spread externalities, and the nonemptiness of the core of NTU games by Scarf (1971) are discussed.
講師：近藤 絢子 氏（東京大学）
議論：Access to Formal Childcare for Toddlers and Parental Employment and Earnings
アブストラクト：This study examines the effect of availability of accredited childcare centers, the most popular category of publicly-licensed childcare centers in Japan, on mothers’ employment and earnings. We focus on mothers with children less than two years old, most of whom are returning from parental leave to full-time work under excess demand for center-based childcare. We construct an instrument from the first-round assignment process of April enrollment and find that the enrollment to an accredited childcare center increases mothers’ employment rate and mothers’ annual salary significantly.
共著者：深井 太陽 氏
場所：豊中キャンパス 国際公共政策研究科棟 6階会議室
講師：Philip Barrett氏、Jorge A. Alvarez 氏（International Monetary Fund）
議論："IMF’s World Economic Outlook and Wage-price Spiral Risks"
Description: Inflation has reached its highest levels in 40 years in some economies. Although wage growth tended to stay below inflation so far, observers have warned that wage-price spirals—feedback loops of ever rising wage growth and inflation—could emerge. This presentation will cover two chapters from the most recent World Economic Outlook report from the International Monetary Fund. The first is a conjunctural chapter, providing a broad overview of the global economic situation. The second is an analytical chapter on wage dynamics post-COVID-19 and wage-price spiral risks. Using a mix of empirical and model-based analyses, this examines past and recent wage dynamics. Historical episodes similar to today did not tend to show subsequent wage-price spirals. With underlying inflation shocks originating outside the labor market and aggressive monetary tightening, the chapter considers risks of a sustained acceleration of wages and prices to be limited.
講師：遠山 祐太 氏（早稲田大学）
議論："Welfare Effects of Nonlinear Electricity Pricing with Misperception: A Case of Free Electricity Policy" (joint with Ngawang Dendup)"
アブストラクト：This paper evaluates the welfare effects of nonlinear electricity pricing when consumers may have a misperception about the pricing schedule. We focus on a unique electricity subsidy program in Bhutan where electricity is provided for free up to 100 kWh per month. Using administrative billing data from the universe of retail customers, we find evidence of distinctive bunching of consumption at 100 kWh after the introduction of the program. To interpret this observation and derive welfare implications of the policy, we construct and estimate a model of electricity demand for consumers with different misperceptions. Estimation results suggest that much of consumers behave with some forms of misperceptions. We then conduct a simulation analysis to evaluate the free electricity policy. The current subsidy scheme benefits households with higher electricity consumption. The welfare loss due to the misperception is about 1%-5% of monthly electricity expenditure. We also investigate the optimal tariff schedule and its welfare and distributional implications.
講師：Shunsuke Tsuda (Brown University) Takeaki Sunada (University of Rochester) Tatsuya Abe (Waseda University)
Yoko Okuyama (Uppsala University) Kohei Kawaguchi (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) Takahiro Toriyabe (University College London）
議論："Mechanization, Intensification, and Extensification of Agriculture: Evidence from Rice Farming in Tanzania"
アブストラクト：Agricultural machinery use is increasingly becoming common in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, their potential benefits to smallholder farmers remain unclear. This study aims to examine the impact of large- and small-scale agricultural mechanization on the expansion of the cultivated area (extensification), technology adoption and paddy yield (intensification), and labor use by using three-year panel data collected from rice farmers in Tanzania. In order to account for the endogeneity problem, we apply a multinomial endogenous treatment effect model with Mundlak-Chamberlain devices. We find that large four-wheeled tractor use contributes to the area expansion without affecting land productivity. On the other hand, small two-wheeled power tiller use contributes to the increase in the adoption of labor-intensive technologies as well as paddy yield. We also observe that family labor use declines significantly for machinery users while mixed evidence is observed for hired labor use. This study would contribute to the recent policy debates that aim to promote small-scale mechanization among farmers in SSA.
場所：豊中キャンパス 法経 研究棟 ７階大会議室
議論："The impact of reduced mobility on suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic"
アブストラクト：Previous studies report that suicide among young females increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To understand the reason behind, this study elaborates the impact of reduced mobility induced by social distancing polices. To address the endogeneity of mobility, we employ a difference-in-differences instrumental variable approach, leveraging changes in mobility across localities under social distancing policies. We found increased suicide among females under 20 years old as mobility declined. The results are robust to alternative model specifications and different mobility indices. Our results suggest that the cost of social distancing policies disproportionately fall in young females, and highlight the importance of necessary support beyond financial assistance to mitigate the social impact of staying at home orders.
講師 ：Xiaxin Wang氏 (Fudan University)
論題：“Understanding Misreporting: Responses to a Housing Transaction Tax Notch in China” (with Ziying Fan, Hang Zhang)
講師 ：沖本 竜義氏（慶應義塾大学）
講師：田中 万理氏（一橋大学）議題：”Union Leaders: Experimental Evidence from Myanmar”
Economic theory suggests that leaders may play a key roles in enabling social movements
to overcome collective action problems through a variety of distinct mechanisms.
Empirical tests of these theories outside the lab are scarce due to both measurement
and identification challenges.We conduct multiple field experiments to test theories of
leadership in the context of Myanmar’s burgeoning labor union movement.
We collaborate with a confederation of labor unions as it mobilizes garment workers
in the run-up to a national minimum wage negotiation. We present three sets of results.
First, we document that union leaders differ from union members and non-members along
several traits that economists identify as relevant for political selection and that psychologists
have associated with ability to influence collective outcomes, respectively.
Second, we randomly embed leaders in group discussionson workers’ preferred and expected
minimum wage levels. A leader’s presence in the group improves group engagement and
increases workers’ consensus around the unions’ preferred minimum wage levels.
Third, we conduct a mobilization experiment in which workers are invited to participate
in an unannounced activity that features strategic complementarity in turnout.
Leaders influence participation through both coordination and social pressure mechanisms
rather than by simply motivating workers.