大阪大学経済学研究会 

GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics

IPP研究会共催

概要

大阪大学大学院経済学研究科では、定例研究会を第1、第4木曜日を中心に開催しております。2009年より、経済学研究科と国際公共政策研究科の合同セミナーとして開催しております。 通称『待兼山セミナー』です。


OVERVIEW

The Graduate School of Economics(GSE) organizes faculty seminars on the first and fourth Thursdays of each month.

Since 2009, the seminars have been held jointly with OSIPP as GSE-OSIPP joint seminars in economics.


2022年度第5回 大阪大学経済学研究会 のご案内

日時:2022年7月7日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師:中野優子 氏(筑波大学)

議論:Mechanization, Intensification, and Extensification of Agriculture: Evidence from Rice Farming in Tanzania

アブストラクト:Agricultural machinery use is increasingly becoming common in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, their potential benefits to smallholder farmers remain unclear. This study aims to examine the impact of large- and small-scale agricultural mechanization on the expansion of the cultivated area (extensification), technology adoption and paddy yield (intensification), and labor use by using three-year panel data collected from rice farmers in Tanzania. In order to account for the endogeneity problem, we apply a multinomial endogenous treatment effect model with Mundlak-Chamberlain devices. We find that large four-wheeled tractor use contributes to the area expansion without affecting land productivity. On the other hand, small two-wheeled power tiller use contributes to the increase in the adoption of labor-intensive technologies as well as paddy yield. We also observe that family labor use declines significantly for machinery users while mixed evidence is observed for hired labor use. This study would contribute to the recent policy debates that aim to promote small-scale mechanization among farmers in SSA.


Date and time : July, 7, 2022 (Thursday) 13:30~15:00

Presenter : Yuko Nakano (tsukuba University)

Title: Mechanization, Intensification, and Extensification of Agriculture: Evidence from Rice Farming in Tanzania"

Abstract: Agricultural machinery use is increasingly becoming common in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, their potential benefits to smallholder farmers remain unclear. This study aims to examine the impact of large- and small-scale agricultural mechanization on the expansion of the cultivated area (extensification), technology adoption and paddy yield (intensification), and labor use by using three-year panel data collected from rice farmers in Tanzania. In order to account for the endogeneity problem, we apply a multinomial endogenous treatment effect model with Mundlak-Chamberlain devices. We find that large four-wheeled tractor use contributes to the area expansion without affecting land productivity. On the other hand, small two-wheeled power tiller use contributes to the increase in the adoption of labor-intensive technologies as well as paddy yield. We also observe that family labor use declines significantly for machinery users while mixed evidence is observed for hired labor use. This study would contribute to the recent policy debates that aim to promote small-scale mechanization among farmers in SSA.


今後のスケジュール

日時:2022年106日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師:遠山祐太  氏(早稲田大学)

議論:“Flexible Demand Estimation with Nonparametric Income Effect: An Application to Pass-through and Merger Analysis”(仮)

The Upcoming Schedule

Date and time : October, 6, 2022 (Thursday) 13:30~15:00

Presenter : Yuta Toyama (waseda University)

Title: “Flexible Demand Estimation with Nonparametric Income Effect: An Application to Pass-through and Merger Analysis”(仮)

■過去のセミナー

第4回

日時:2022年6月30日(木)13:30〜15:00 

場所:豊中キャンパス 法経 研究棟 7階大会議室

講師:井深陽子氏(慶応義塾大学)

議論:"The impact of reduced mobility on suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic"

アブストラクト:Previous studies report that suicide among young females increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To understand the reason behind, this study elaborates the impact of reduced mobility induced by social distancing polices. To address the endogeneity of mobility, we employ a difference-in-differences instrumental variable approach, leveraging changes in mobility across localities under social distancing policies. We found increased suicide among females under 20 years old as mobility declined. The results are robust to alternative model specifications and different mobility indices. Our results suggest that the cost of social distancing policies disproportionately fall in young females, and highlight the importance of necessary support beyond financial assistance to mitigate the social impact of staying at home orders.


第3回

日時 :2022年6月23日(木)13:30〜15:00 

講師 :Xiaxin Wang 氏 (Fudan University)

論題:“Understanding Misreporting: Responses to a Housing Transaction Tax Notch in China” (with Ziying Fan, Hang Zhang)


アブストラクト:Using proprietary data from a large Chinese real estate brokerage company that records both true and reported prices of its housing transactions, we study the misreporting behavior under a housing transaction tax notch. Besides showing compelling evidence of underreporting, we provide novel evidence on the empirical relationship between the reported tax base and the true tax base under a tax notch. This relationship includes not only the expected bunching for those whose true sales price is modestly above the notch, but also a largely constant amount of price underreporting for those with a true sales price further above the notch. This pattern is consistent with a simple model that emphasizes the tradeoff between tax-saving and misreporting costs. While the model is used to reconcile the cross-sectional misreporting patterns, it generates a surprising prediction that underreporting should fall when the tax rate goes up. Intuitively, the government would be expected to be more aggressive in pursuing and penalizing any given level of underreporting when more tax revenue is at stake. By exploiting a tax reform that reduced the tax rate above the tax notch, we do find greater underreporting when the tax rate is lower.

言語:英語

第2回

日時 :2022年6月9日(木)13:30〜15:00   

講師 :沖本竜義氏(慶應義塾大学)

論題:「ESG投資ならびに企業のESG評価と市場評価」

アブストラクト: 近年、ESG投資は大幅に拡大し、企業のESG活動やその評価が重要視されるようになってきている。それを受けて、ESG投資や企業のESG評価が市場でどのように評価されているのかを明らかにすることが重要となっている。本報告では、この課題に対する、最近の研究を2本紹介する。具体的には、1つ目の研究では、ESG投資のパフォーマンスに着目し、日本株女性活躍指数(WIN)やESGセレクト・リーダーズ指数(SLI)のパフォーマンスが市場より良くなる状況があるのかどうか、あるのであれば、どのような状況なのかについて検証した結果を紹介する。2つ目の研究では、企業のESG評価と信用スプレッドの関係に焦点を当て、企業の高いESG評価が、企業の信用スプレッドを低下させるかどうかについて検証した結果を紹介する。

言語:日本語

形式:オンライン(ズーム)

報告論文

第1回

日時:2022年5月26日(木)13:30〜15:00 (日本時間)

講師:田中万理氏(一橋大学)

議題:”Union Leaders: Experimental Evidence from Myanmar”

形式:オンライン (Zoom)

Abstract :

Economic theory suggests that leaders may play a key roles in enabling social movements

to overcome collective action problems through a variety of distinct mechanisms.

Empirical tests of these theories outside the lab are scarce due to both measurement

and identification challenges.We conduct multiple field experiments to test theories of

leadership in the context of Myanmar’s burgeoning labor union movement.

We collaborate with a confederation of labor unions as it mobilizes garment workers

in the run-up to a national minimum wage negotiation. We present three sets of results.

First, we document that union leaders differ from union members and non-members along

several traits that economists identify as relevant for political selection and that psychologists

have associated with ability to influence collective outcomes, respectively.

Second, we randomly embed leaders in group discussionson workers’ preferred and expected

minimum wage levels. A leader’s presence in the group improves group engagement and

increases workers’ consensus around the unions’ preferred minimum wage levels.

Third, we conduct a mobilization experiment in which workers are invited to participate

in an unannounced activity that features strategic complementarity in turnout.

Leaders influence participation through both coordination and social pressure mechanisms

rather than by simply motivating workers.

    

学外者で参加をご希望の方は、セミナーへの参加を希望される場合は以下までお問い合わせ下さい。

【 goken@econ.osaka-u.ac.jp】


連絡先(連絡先)

大阪府豊中市待兼山町1-7

大阪大学経済学部大阪大学経済学部研究会事務局

(合同研究室)

TEL:06-6850-5273 FAX:06-6850-5274

Eメール: goken@econ.osaka-u.ac.jp


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